An olive tree can live 1,000 years or more. Even if the tree dies or is cut or damaged, sprouts from its roots can grow into full-size, fruit-bearing trees. Olive trees succeed in climates in which there are mildly cold winters (they need cooler temperatures to set the buds that later form the fruit) and long, hot summers.
During the growing season, olives need a lot of dry heat. The tough trees don’t need much water and can tolerate temperatures as low as 10 degrees Fahrenheit for brief periods of time.